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SIKHISM OF 17TH CENTURY -An Eye Witness Account -Dabistan-e- Mazahib :

SIKHISM OF 17TH CENTURY  -An Eye Witness Account -Dabistan-e- Mazahib :

Dabistan-e- Mazahib by Zulfiqar Ardisani alias Moubid perhaps a Zoroastrian is the first ever account of the Sikhism written by a non Sikh. Though not completely free from errors it throws a flood of light on Sikhism. It vindicates Warran of Bhai Gurdas yet another contemporary of Guru Hargobind and is severe blow to the present day prevalence Of pseudo-sainthood ness of various colours and hues believing in ritualism. It confirms that the Gurus  hunted and. ate meat, non belief in incarnations, system of offerings, effectiveness of ilasand SYstema hint that Guru Nanak was born in April contrary to the belief that his birth falls in November and that Pirthia was called Meharban while it welknown that Meharban was elder son of Pirthia. lt also confirms that the status 0f sangat congregation was equal to the Guru even at that time. The Dabistan were rendered into English as beck as 1843 AD which  Dr. Ganda Singh the most eminent historian of this century later corrected it as far as the account of Sikhs is concerned.
Nanakpanthis who are known as Sikhs are disciples of the Gurus  (Nanak and his successors),  have no belief in idols and idol temples. Nanak  is from the Bedis and Bedis are a sub-caste of the Khatris. In the reign of His  Maiesty the late EmprorZahiru&Dilt  Babarmay God illumine his argument   he (Nanak) became famous. Before the victory of the late Emperor (Babur) Nanak was a Modi to i Daulat Khan Lodhi who was one of the  high officials of lbrahim Khan the Emperor of Delhi. And Modi is an official in charge of the granary.
  Once a saint came to him and captivated his heart so much so that Nanak going to his shop gave all in  charity to the poor: all his own and  Daulat Khans grain that he had in the shop and stores. He then severed his all connection with his wife and children.  Daulat Khan astonished to hear  this. As he saw signs of saintliness in Nanak.  He refrained from molesting  him. In short Nanak underwent severe austerities. At first he reduced his food and after some time he depended upon drinking a little of cow milk. After that he lived on ghee and then on water. Lastly he lived on air like those who in Hindostan are called Pavanaharis or consumers of air alone. It appears to have been based on the authority of some one who wished to represent the Guru as one of the old Hindu recluses who are generally respected for their  austerities . (Remarks: Gurbani is evidence Guru was opposed to such austerities)
 Some people became his disciples. Nanak believed in the unity of God as it is laid down in the tenets of Muhammad. He also believed in the doctrine of transmigration. Holding wine and pork unlawful he abstained from animal food and enjoined against cruelty to animals. (There is nothing in the teachings of Guru Nanak to condemn the use of animal food.) After his death meat eating was common among his disciples. And when Arjan Mal who is one of the prophetic order  of Nanak found that evil he prohibited people from meat eating and said “This practice is not in accordance with the wishes of Nanak.” (There is no such sentence traceable in the sayings Guru Arjan in the Guru Granth Sahib.) Eventually Hargobind son of Arjan Mal ate meat and hunted and most of his disciples followed his practice.
 Just as Nanak Praised the Mohammadans he also praised the incarnations and the gods and goddesses of the Hindus. But he knew them all to be the creation and not the creator. He denied (the doctrine of Halool. (direct descent or incarnation of God) and Ittihaad (direct union of the All pervading God with any particular body). They say that he had the rosary of the Muhammadan  in his hand and the sacred Brahmanical thread round his neck. (He seems to be confusing the black woollen string called Sehli which is worn by a class of Sadhus in India).
 His disciples narrate to many of his miracles which  cannot find room in this brief sketch. One of these is that Nanak having been displeased with  the Afghans deputed the Mughals over them. So in the year 932 al Hijri (1526 A.D) his majesty the late Emperor Zahiruddin Muhammad Babar gained victory over the Afghan [Emperor] lbrahim.
 They also say that during one of his travels Baba Nanak spent a night in a fort and was absorbed in the vision of God. However much the children who were playing there touched his body with their hands no motion appeared from him. They stitched up his eye lids nose and ears and tied his hands tightly when he returned to himself from that state of mental alienation and ecstasy and found himself in that condition he went to the houses. When he arrived at the threshold he cried out “Is there any one in the house who can open my stitched up eyelids with hands” A handsome woman having conducted him into the house and untying his hands un-stiched what was sewed up and cut the thread from the eyes of Baba Nanak with her teeth. Consequently the paint of the tilak was imposed on the forehead of Nanak and the tilak of the woman became smothered. When Nanak came out of her house the neighbours saw him in that condition [with the tilak mark on his forehead and thought that he had copulated with that woman. Consequently the woman became infamous in the community. And  a dislike appeared towards her in the mind of her husband.
 The woman one day came to Nanak and said l rendered You service in the name of God and now they blame me. Nanak said tomorrow the gates of the fort shall get shut and it shall not open till your hand reaches (touches) it. The next day however they did try to open the gate of the fort it did not open. The People remained in that state of helplessness. The place was high and away from water. The quadruplets (animal like cows etc) also could not get out. The inhabitants of the fort approached the person whom they considered to be holy. The closed gate did not open by the prayers of that community as well  until [the people of  that community came to Nanak and said  " Oh saint what is the remedy for this thing. He replied  " This door shall not open except by the hand of a woman who has not done what is unlawful with a stranger [that is who has not cohabited with a person other than her husband]". The people of the fort took the women whom they considered to be virtuous and chaste to the gate of the fort. But it was of no avail. At last every woman who was inside the fort rubbed her hand against the gate but no good came out of it. Consequently the sat down in despair.
 At the time of the evening prayer the friend of Baba Nanak came. The people laughed on seeing her. Her husband end near relatives  being ashamed rebuked her. The woman lent no ear to what the community said. Striking her hand into the gate ring she pulled it. And lo ! the closed gate was opened. The people having been astonished fell at the woman’s feet.
 The Bani of Nanak that is his hymn comprise prayers admonitions and counsels and most of the saying are on the greatness of God Most Holy. And at that is in the language of the Jats. A Jat in the vocabulary of the Punjab is a villager and peasant. His (Nanak’s) disciples have no regard for the Sanskrit language. The rules and regulations which Nanak laid down will be described here after .
 Nanak has said in his hymns  Heavens and earths are numerous. Prophets saints incarnations (Avtars and Sidhs have attained perfection through devotion to God. And every one who strives in the worship of God by whatever path he wishes becomes favourite of God. The means of (attaining) proximity of God is non injury to (any) living being.
 "Be righteous that you become freed (saved Righteousness from you (shall bring to you) success from God." The sons of Nanak are in the Punjab. They are called Kartari [that is the worshippers of Kartar the Creator. But according to the opinion of some the spiritual office did not inherit to his sons. They say that by his order Guru Angad from the caste of the Trehan Khattris sat in place (succeeded  the spiritual office) of Nanak. After him Guru Amardas from the Bhalla khatri caste became his successor and aftar him sat Guru Ramdas Who is from the  Sodhi Khattris and Whom they call Sri Guru the Great Master also.
 After the death of Ramdas his son Arjan Mal sat in place of his father. In his time the Sikhs or disciples became numerous and made exaggerations in the beliefs. They said "Baba Nanak is God and the world is of his creating." But in (his) hymns Baba.Nanak reckoned himself a slave [of God] and called God Niranjan the Formless parbrahm the Supreme Spirit and Parmeshar the Supreme Lord who is not body and bodied and is not united with [material] body. The Sikhs say Baba Nanak was such and had no body but he appeared to us through his power. And they go so far that when Nanak left his body he absorbed himself in Guru Angad who was his nearest servant (most devoted disciple) and that Guru Angad is Nanak himself. After that at the time of his death Guru Angad entered into the body of Amar das in the above mentioned manner. He in the same manner occupied a place in the body of Ramdas and Ramdas in the same way got united with Arjan Mat. They give everyone the name of a Mahal first Mahal being Nanak second Mahal Angad and so on till the fifth Mahal who is Arjan Mal. They said that whoever does not a knowledge [or believe in]  Guru Arjan Mal to be the very  self of Baba Nanak  becomes Manmukh or a non-believer.
 They have numerous stories. They say that in ancient time Baba Nanak was Raja Janak.(After this follows a long  irrelevant account of Raja Janak the father of Sita  the dutiful wife of king Rama of Ayodhia from the Jog Basisht. It has no bearing on the subject there fore omitted here.) In the opinion of the disciples of Nanak Guru Nanak in a life from previous creations having been Raja Janak had accomplished spiritual works along with his temporal kingdom and called mankind to God.
 The chronicler has heard from reliable Sikhs that when Baba Nanak appeared in the Sat Juga crowd of disciples came around him. He sent a cow into the kichen.When cooked they brought it to the Sangat that is the congregation of the Sikhs. Some ate of it and the others ran away. The Guru prayed and the cow came to life. On seeing that condition  of the cow come to life the crowd that had run away returned and submitted "Now we shall eat [whatever is ordered in the kitchen]" The Guru that is Nanak said "Now it cannot be and our promise to you is for the Treta Jug." So it is the cycle of the Treta the Guru appeared. The disciple assembles " I have said killed a horse and brought it into the assembly. Some ate of it and a crowd disliked it. So he (Nanak) prayed  and the horse became alive. The deserters made the same Previous request. This time he said. "Now our promise to you is for the Duapar Jug" And in the cycle of Dwapar they brought an elephant into the kitchen.
 At that time also it happened as I have said. The promise was made for the kal Jug. They say that in the Kal jug they brought a man into the kitchen. Whoever ate of it was liberated and he who refrained [from eating it ] remained in suffering.
 I have also heard from a Sikh who called Nanak a near Slave of God that when Nanak severed his bodily connection his soul reached a folk where one road ran in the direction of heaven and the other in that of hell. Nanak chose the road to hell and he brought the inhabitants of hell out but the infernal region. Most High addressed him "Those sinners cannot enter heaven. So you should go to the world and liberate this multitude. Nanak consequently came to the world And now those inhabitants of hell are the multitude of his disciples. And the Guru comes to this world and returnes till all of that sect obtain salvation Other than this man no one is seen from among the sikh who holds Baba Nanak to be God.
 ln short the disciples of Nanak condemn idol worship Their belief is that all their gurus are Nanak as has been said .They do not read the Mantras of the Hindus. They do not venerate their temples of idols nor do they esteem their Avtars. They have no regard for the Sanskrit language which according is the Hindus is the speech of the angel.
 ln short during the time of each Mahal (Guru) the Sikh increased till in the reign of Guru Arjan mal theY became numerous and there Were not many cities in the inhabited countries where some Sikh were not to be found. There is no restriction among them that a Brahman may not become the disciple of a Khattri for Nanak waS a Khattri and no Guru amongst them was from the Brahmans as has been described. similarly they Placed Khattris under the authority of the Jats who belong to the low caste of the Vaishyas as the big Masands of the Guru are mostly Jats The Brahmans and khattris are (become) than kings the nobles were addressed in writing as Masand-i- Ali or the High seat Subsequently by frequent use the  Indians have reduced it to Masand. And as the Sikhs consider the Gurus Sacha Padshah that is the veritable King they call their agents Masand. They call them Ramrias (or the servants of God) also.
 In the time of the Mahals before the fifth Mahal no Bhet (offering) or tribute was collected from the Sikhs. Whatever was presented by the Sikhs themselves was accepted [and deemed enough. During his time Arjun Mal deputed one Person to the Sikh of every city so that he might collect tribute and offerings from them. This deputy or agent was called Masand.
 People began to become Sikhs of the Guru through the medium of Masands. The chief Masands through whom large numbers became Sikhs of the Guru appointed deputies on their own behalf so that in every Place and Mahal people having (at first) become Meli (associates or pupils) of the Masand through the Masands agent become the Sikhs of the Guru.
 They have so decided that an Udasi that is a renouncer of the world  is not praiseworthy. Therefore some Sikh of the Guru do agricultural work and some trade and a multitude takes up service. Every year according to the extent of the money earned by them they send (their dues) to the Masands in the form of offerings. The Masands do not touch (that is they do not appropriate it to their own use). Other than this whatever they bring during the year for the Masand (himself) for conveying their Bhet to the Court of the Guru is spent for himself if the Masand has no other means of livelihood But if he himself is engaged in some business or profession he never soils himself by misappropriating to himself the offerings of the Sikhs Collecting all (the offerings) he conveys them to the Guru.
 In the month of Baisakh (April) when the sun is in the sign of Taurus the Masands assemble at the Court of the Guru. Whoever from among their Melis (Members of the Masands congregations) wishes and is able to undertake the journey comes to Guru with the Masands. At the time of taking leave (from the Gurus presence) the Guru bestows a turban on each of the Masands.
 Now when a few of the beliefs of the Sikhs have been written with the pen of research I write about some of  the prominent people of this sect whom I have seen.
 Sixth Mahal is Sri Guru  Hargobind son of Guru Aljan Mal When His Majesty the late Nuruddin  Mohamand Jahangir after the arrest of Khusro arrested and fined Guru  Arjan Mal for the reason that he had prayed for the welfare of Prince Khursro the late Emperor (Jahangir) son who had rebelled agains this father they demanded an enormous sum from him(Guru Arjan). The Guru  was unable to pay.
 Having imprisoned him (therefore) they kept him in the sandy desert of Lahore. From the heat of the sun the severity of summer and the tortures of the bailiffs he gave his life. Thiu incident took place in 1015 al Hijri May 30, 1606 A.D. Similarly he externed Sikh Nizam of Thanesar from India for his complicity with and prayer for the welfare of Khusro.
 ln short after Arjan Mal his brother Prithia whom the laters followers call Guru Meharban occupied the spiritual office. Now this is in one thousand and fifty five al Hijri (A.0. 1645) Guru Harji is his successor. Prithia and his successor hold themselves to be Bhagats that is the worshippers of God. And the disciples of Guru Hargobind son of Arjun Mal name them (Prithia and his successors and followers) Mina (the detestable) and this name among them is contemptuous.
 After Arjun Mal Hargobind claimed the succession and sat in place of his father and being (once) attached to was not separated from Jahangir. Many hardships confronted him. One of them is this that he adopted the form of soldiers girded sword against the practice of his father kept servants and took to hunting. The late Emperor (Jahangir) sent Hargobind to the fort of Gwalior on account of the balance of the dues of fine that he had imposed on Arjan Mal. He remained fort twelve years in that place where they did not allow that he might eat salty food. During this time the Masands and the Sikhs used to go down to the wall of the fort. At last the late Emperor by way of kindness gave freedom to  the Guru.
  After the death of the late Emperor (Jahangir) he (Hargobind) was denoted to his majestry Chief of the Believers Lord of the Victorious  Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan lord of conjunction the Second. When he returned creditable service and afforded help to Yar khan the Eunich who was Faujdar in the neighbourhood of the Panjab. He returned to Ramdaspura in which place Guru Ramdas and Guru Arjan Mal had constructed lofty building and a fine tank .
  He (Guru Hargobind) had a fight with the armies of lmperial Agents and the servants of Shah jahan who had gone against him by the commands of Guru was plundered. From that place he hastened to Kartarpur. There also a battle took place . In that battle Mir Badehra and Painda Khan son of Fateh Khan Kunaid were killed. Before and after that occasion large army rushed at him but with the help of God he escaped unhurt though he left (had to leave) whatever he had.
 I have heard from a Person named Sadh that during the battle a person struck a sword upon the Guru. Warding off (the blow) the Guru said to the swordsman "They do not strike like that .Striking is like this." And with that blow he did away with his foe. One of the companions of the Guru enquired of the chronicler "What is the philosophy that the Guru at the time of striking the blow said "See in this way a wound is inflicted". l said it comes to my mind that the sword striking of the Guru was also by way of teaching for they call the teacher a Guru (or that Guru means a teacher) and not by way of anger because it is a condemned thing." .
  ln short after the battle of Kartarpur he went to Phagwara. As his residence in places near Lahore was difficult he hastened from there to Kiratpur which is in the hills of the Punjab. That land belonged to Raja Tara Chand who did not walk on the path of submission and service to Emperor Shah Jahan.
 The people of that Place worship idols. On the summit of a mountain they have raised an idol to the goddess named Naina Devi. The rajas used to go to that Place and performed the rites of pilgrimage. When the Guru came to that Place one of his Sikhs Bhairo by name went to the temple of the idol and broke the nose of the Devi (goddess). The rajas having received the news complained to the Guru and named him.  The Guru sent for Bhairo. Bhairo denied. The attendants of the raja said  "We recognize him." He replied  "Oh Rajas ask the goddess if she name me you (may) kill me." The rajas said "Oh fool how can the goddess speak?" Bhairo answered smilingly  "lt is clear who the fool is. When she cannot prevent the breaking of her own head and cannot identify her own injurer what good can you expect from her and (why) do you worship her as divine ?" The rajas remained tongue tied. Now most of the people of that land are disciples of the Guru.
 ln those mountains up to the frontier of the territories of Tibet and Cathay there is no trace of Muhammadanism. The chronicler has heard it from the tongue of Guru Hargobind  "ln the northern hills there is a raja of great dignity. Once he sent an ambassador to me and enquired if l have heard there is a city named Delhi. What is the name of its raja? Of which rajas son he is? ".1 am astonished that he does not know the name of the chief of the Believers and Lord of Conjunction the Second (Emperor Shah Jahan).
 The Guru had seven hundred horses in his stables. And three hundred cavaliers and sixty artillery men were always in his service. Of these a  number lived by trade service and (other) occupations. Every one who absconded from any place sought his (Gurus) protection.
 The Guru was a monotheist and a unitarian. A person enquired from him about the reality of the existence of the world and the state of Existence and Being. He replied  "The world is a baseless manifestation and a bodiless appearance. Its  reality is God Most High. These bodies  forms  and angels are a mere fancy. And we narrate to you an ancient story.
 A person from the Brahmans named Deva who held  himself to be a Giani came to the Guru. One day he sat down on the Plang or bedstead of Gurditta known es Babajio son of the Guru. People said "Don’t sit (on this bedstead)." He asked the reason of it. They replied "This is the seat of the Guru." Deva said "But is not the body of the Guru made of the (same) elements or have I not the rational soul? ls it not in my Power to eat whatever he (eats and) drinks ?" These words reached Guru Hargobind He called him and said "Oh Deva the whole world is one existence ? [ls it not?] He replied  "Yes". The Guru pointed to an ass (and said) "What is he ? Do you recognize him ?" Deva replied "You are absolutely true. This  too is your self. " The Guru laughed and was not offended at all. Deva wished to marry his own sister. People said "It is unlawful." He replied lf it were forbidden man and woman could not have sexually met. Because God did not want us to fly in the air He did nat give us the power of flying".
 The Sikhs worship Gurru Hargobind as divine. Their belief is that he God having manifested himself six times (from Guru Nanak to himself) in this cycle.
Parrah Kaivan Yazdani having heard of the Gurus virtues came to see him. Having recognized him the Guru showed him due respect. Consequently Parrah Kaivan went away .
A week had not yet elapsed since the departure of Parrah Kalvan when on Sunday the third of Muharrarn 1095 Hijri the Guru undertook the last journey. Placing his body on firewood when they set fire and the flames rose high a Rajput named Raja ram who was the servant flung himself into the fire. He walked a few paces on till he had conveyed himself to the feet of the Guru. He placed his face in the soles of  feet of Guru and did not move till he gave his life. After him the son of a Jat who served the Gurus son-in-law jumped into the fire. After that a large number (of people) wanted to jump in. Guru Har Rai forbade it.  Guru Hargobind in his letters to this chronicler remembered the title of Nanak who is the spiritual head of this sect. He (chronicler) saw him at Kiratpur in the year 1053 Hijri.
Guru Har Rai is the grandson of Guru Hargobind.  His father Gurditta is known as Babajio. Guru Hargobind first desired to pass on the rein of successorship into his (Gurditta) control (at this time) Gurditta Ghora  a Sikh brought his daughter for marriage with Babajio. Babajio wanted to send her to his special harem when the mother of Har Rai who on account of the carelessness with which Babajio treated her, wanted that woman to be give to some other man came to Guru Hargobind and complained having heard her. Guru Hargobind said to Babajio, “I regard Nighora (Gurditta Ghora) as son of mine. His daughter can’t be married to my son.  Nighora (Gurditta Ghora) didn’t agree to take his daughter back and returning of sedan-chair (litter). On account of his humble requests Babajio did not reject his wish. Guru Hargobind said "May this matrimonial connection and its fulfilment never take place. " In those very days Babajio passed away with the bridegrooms robes on. The daughter of Gurditta Ghora returned home a virgin.
 So therefore the great Guru favoured Har Rai the eldest son of Babajio with an eye of kindness and addressed him as babajio At the the time of his death he (Guru Hargobind) istalled him (Har Rai) on his on seal {of Guruship) put the robe of successor ship on his body and ordered (his) progeny and all his family members to obey him.
 Har Rai remained at Kiratpur for one year. In the year one thousand and fifty five (Hijri) when Najabat Khan son of shah Rukh Mirza having mobilized an army under the orders of Shah Jahan invaded the territories of Tara Chand and made the Raja a prisoner GuruHar Rai went to Thapul in the territories of Raja Karam Prakash near Sarhind.
 The Sikhs call Har Rai the Seventh Mahal. He is very well known to the chronicler.
 Having acquainted himself the author now writes about some of the famous Masands and divine Ramdasis and presents some of the characteristics [customs and manners] of the sect They call their successors Ramdas also. The late Emperor Jahangir and Emperor Shah jahan called the Guru Ramdas that is the God of the idolatrous Ramdasis.
 Jhanda is one of the propagandists of the Guru. He is a wealthy man. He does not talk to any one and has nothing to do with the  good and bad of any one. One day his foot had a wound. Hargobind said you don’t wear shoes." On hearing this he immediately put off his shoes and went about with naked feet for three months. When the Guru came to know of it he said put on your shoes I had told you to put off your shoes  for the  healing of the wound." .
  Some days afterwards Guru said  "Tell the Sikhs that they may bring firewood for the kitchen so that 1t may be Sawa& (virtuousl to them." Jhanda disappeared earlyr next day in spite of  the fact that on other days he did riot l Set up frornsieep tillmidday. As pgqpJe lhought oJ the madperps of. his 1 brainl thqythought .that fie thad  gofi e out. The Guru anU peopld seaiched for hirn andsaw that he waspoming with a bundle of firewood on his shouider   Jhe Gqru said  "l did not teil you [to bring firewood..l He replied. you  ordered the Sikhs. I am a Sikhs and I know of no higher dignity." .
 Once the Guru went inside a  garden. He said to Jhanda  you remain at the gate." By chance the  Guru going out by another door went  home. Jhanda stood there for three  days till Guru Hargobind on hearing of  it called him back.
 Guru Hargobind had a disciple named Bidhia. He sent a man to bring grain from the place where it was sown. That man gave away the whole of it and  said to Bidhia "you used to distribute it to the needy people. I also did the same at that place. And you are  saved from the expenses of transporting it. "Bidhia was at first a thief. Now also his followers have inclination for theft. He tries his utmost in the obedience of the Guru. His belief is that whatever they steal for the Guru is praiseworthy and that there is Sawab or future reward of virtue in it . The Sikhs say  that Guru Hargobind said "On the day of retribution they will not ask from my disciple [the account of their deeds.
 Sadh is one of the disciples of the Guru. According to the Gurus orders he set out from Balakh to lraq for bringing horses. He had a grown up son who fell sick. People said "you are still in the city of Balakh only one stage distant from home see your son." He replied  “lf he will die there is plenty of firewood in the house. You may cremate him I have set my face in the service  of the Guru. I shall not  return.” At last the boy passed away and he {sadh) did not return.
  At last he brought three lraqi horses. Khalil Beg a tyrant took hold of them. This did not bring good look to him. During that very year his son who  was the cause of it died and he himself was dishonoured and disgraced.
 Sadh is a person who does not become elated by joys and depressed by sorrows. Once this author was a companion with him from Kabul to the Punjab. The belt of my skin-coat snapped. Sadh instantly took off his Brahmanical thread and put up a patch  in the place that is patched the belt with it. I said "Why did you do like this ?" He replied, "The wearing of the. thread is an undertaking of service. When I neglect the service of friends I become non wearer of thread .
  A Sikh asked Guru Hargobind in the absence of the Guru whom shall I find him?" He replied “Reckon every Sikh who taking the name of God or  Guru comes to yours house as Guru." .
 It is  a practice amongst the  Sikhs that what ever wish they have present what ever they can as an offering before a Masand, or a Sikh, in an assemble of the Sikhs and request that they assembly of the Sikhs should join their hands in prayers towards the guru and pray that his wish be fulfilled. The Guru to request his wishes to be fulfilled in the same manner from sangat, that is, an assembly of a the Sikhs. This custom is also prevalent among the sipasians, i.e the Yazdanis. The belief of this sect is that when a large number of people fix their attention on the fulfilment of certain thing, it surely comes to be, because the prayer has the full effect.
Among the Sikh there is nothing of the austerities and worship as enjoyed by the religious law of the Hindus. In eating and drinking they have no restriction like the Hindus. When Partap Mal Giani saw a Hindu boy who had a mind to embrace lslam he said  "Why do you become a Muhammadan ? lf you have an inclination to eat every thing you may become a Sikh of the Guru and eat whatever you like." .
 The belief of the Sikhs is that the disciples of the Guru all go to heaven. Whoevei takes the name of the Guru and comes into the house of a Sikh they do not prohibit him. (They say a thief taking the name of the Guru came into the house of a Sikh). The Sikh served him accordinE to their custom. In the morning the Sikh went out so that he might bring some thing better [to cook] for him. The thief found the wife of the Sikh with many jewels. Having at once killed her and taking away the jewels he stepped out [went out of the housel. In the way he met the master of the house. The Sikh took him back by force [compelled the thief to return to the house with himl. When they came to the house they found the wife killed. The thief thought that the Sikh had found it out and therefore told him the truth. The Sikh replied "You have done well that is what has happened is in His will." He close the door of the room. He said to the neighbours "My wife is ill." He cooked the food ate himself and gave it to the thief and said "come out (that is you may go now)." He did not take the jewels from him and presented them to him and he cremated his wife.
 To conclude these things happened before Guru Hargobind. And these are the famous Sikhs of this sect (of the Nanak Panthis that are recounted). [abridged and edited from the essay NANAKPANTHIS in The Punjab Past and Present.)
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