by Dr. Ganda Singh

 The following lines describing the character of the Sikhs are from chapter XLI of the Jang Namah of Qazi Nur Muhammad of Gunjaba (Baluchistan) who had accompanied Mir Nasir Khan, ruler of Kelat, during the seventh invasion of Indian  by Ahmad Shah Durrani in the summer of 1764. Nur Muhammad was a scholar of Persian and a poet of considerable merit and he wished to be appointed the Qazi of Shikarpur, or of Deras, when the Afghan king bestowed upon Nasir Khan these territories after his success in the holy war, the Jihad, against the Sikhs who had crossed the lndus and entered into the Deras. He was an eye-witness of the various engagements during the expedition, and on his return to Gunjaba he completed the Jang Namah towards the close of the year 1178 al-hijri, about June 1765.  

 Qazi Nur Muhammad writes:
 Do not call the dogs (the Sikhs) dogs, because they are lions, and are courageous like lions in the field of battle. How can a hero, who roars like a lion in the field of battle be called a dog. lf you wish to learn the art of War, come, face to face with them in the field. They will demonstrate it to you in such a way that one and all will praise them for it. lf you wish to learn the science of war, O swordsman, learn from them how to face an enemy like a hero and to get safely out of an action. Singh is a title a form of address for them . lt is not justice to call them dogs. lf you do not know the Hindustani language I tell you that, the word Singh means a Lion. Truly they are like lions in battle, and at the time of peace thy surpass Hatim.  
 When they take the Indian sword in their hands, they overrun the country from Hindostan to Sind. Nobody then stands in opposition to them, however, much strong he may be. When they manipulate the spear they shatter the ranks of the enemy and when they raise the heads of their spears into the sky, they would pierce even through the Caucasus. When they adjust the strings of their chachi bows and place in them the enemy-killing arrows and pull the strings to their ears, the body of the enemy begins to shiver with fear. When  their battle-axe falls upon the armour  of their opponents becomes their coffin.  
 The body of every one of them  is like the piece of a rock, and in physical grandeur every one of them is more than fifty persons. lt is said that Bahram-Gor killed wild asses and set the lions shrieking. But if Bahram were to come face to face with them, even he would bow before them. 
 During a battle when they take their guns in their hands, they come jumping into the field of action, roaring like lions. They tear the chests of many and shed the blood of several of their enemy  in the dust. lt is said that the musket is a weapon of the ancient days. lt however appears to be the creation of these dogs rather than of the great Socrates. Although there are so many of the 'tufangchis'. (musketeers), but nobody can excel them in its use. To the right and to the left, and in front and towards the back, they go on firing regularly. lf you do not believe in what I say, you may enquire of the brave swordsmen who would tell you more than myself and would praise them for their fighting. The fact that they grappled with thirty thousand heroes bear witness to my statement.  
 lf their armies take to flight, do not take it as an actual flight. lt is a war tactic of theirs. Beware, beware of them for a second time. The object of this trick is that when the furious enemy runs after them, he is separated from his main army and from his reinforcements. Then they turn back to face their pursuers and set fire even to water. Did you not see how, during the flight, they took to a deceptive flight from before the Khan, and how, then they turned back on him and surrounded him on all sides. The Khan then came down from his horse and flung arrows and bullets at them and with bravery extricated himself from their midst.  
  You may yourself judge, O brave man, how a single battalion of theirs rushed upon Multan, entered the city and devastated it and carried away an immense booty. I am not sufficiently , strong in mind to be able to express what the dogs did there. Since the creation of the world nobody remembers to have seen Multan devastated in this way ath the hands of anybody. But because of God so willed it. Everybody of us has to submit to His will.  
  Leaving aside their mode of fighting, hear you another point in which they excel all other fighting people. ln no case would they slay coward, nor would they put an obstacle in the way of a fugitive. They do not plunder the wealth and ornaments of a woman, be she a well to-do lady or a maid-servant. There is no adultery amongst these dogs, nor are these mischievous people given to thieving. Whether a woman is young or old, they call her a Budhiya, and ask her to get out of the way. The word Budhiya in the Indian n language means an old lady'. There is no thief at all amongst these dogs, nor is there any house-breaker born amongst these miscreants. They don’t make friends with adulterers and house- breakers, though their behaviour on the whole is not commendable.  
 lf you are not conversant with their religion, I tell you that the Sikhs are the disciples of the Guru and that, the august Guru lived at Chak (Amritsar). The ways and manners of these people received their impetus from Nanak who showed these Sikhs a separate path taught them a distinct religion. He was succeeded by Gobind Singh. From him they received the title of Singh. They are not from amongst the Hindus. These miscreants have a separate religion of their own.  
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